Pengaruh Rasio CAMEL terhadap Praktik Manajemen Laba di Bank Syariah

Zahara dan Sylvia Veronica Siregar

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate earnings management in syaria banks and the effect of CAMEL ratios on earnings management. Our samples consist of 21 syaria banks, consist of Syaria Bank (Bank Umum Syariah/BUS) dan 18 Syaria Business Unit (Unit Usaha Syariah/UUS) at years 2004-2006. Our results show that on average there is no significant earnings management practices  (measured using discretionary accruals) in syaria banks, and CAMEL ratios do not have significant effect on earnings management, except NPM which has positive and significant effect. This indicate that altough in average there is no earnings management in syaria banks, bank’s profitability could motivate management to engage in earnings management activity. We also find evidence that earnings management in BUS is significantly higher than that in UUS.

Keywords: syariah banks, discretionary accruals, earnings management, CAMEL ratios


Variabel Anteseden dan Konsekuensi Implementasi Sistem Informasi Keuangan Daerah/SIKD (Studi Empiris pada Badan Koordinasi Wilayah Pembangunan Lintas Kabupaten/Kota Wilayah I Propinsi Jawa Tengah)

Dona Primasari, SE., M.Si
Lego Waspodo, SE., Ak., M.Si
Syaiful Rahman, SE., M.Si

ABSTRACT

    This study examines the antecedent variable of  implementation  Government Financial Information Sistem (SIKD) and its consequence.  The  antecedent variables are : decentralization of decision making, adaptation  and the influence of desain SIKD.  The Concequences are  satisfaction and  performance officer. This research represents the empirical test which used  convienence sampling  technics in data collection.  Data were collected from 148  officer of local government  in Bakorwil I central Java provinces.  Data analysis used Structural Equation Model (SEM) with  the program AMOS 5.0
   
Keywords :  decentralization of decision making, adaptation officer, influence of design SIKD, implementation of  Government Financial Information  Sistem  (SIKD), satisfaction and performance officer

Peran Kebijakan Pemerintah dalam Pengelolaan dan Pelaporan Kinerja Lingkungan oleh Perusahaan-perusahaan Publik di Indonesia

Muhammad Ja'far S., SE, SSi, MSi

ABSTRACTS

This study examined the impact of Environmental regulatory factors issued by Indonesian Government and environmental management proactive on the environmental disclosure in firms' annual report among Public Indonesian Companies. By using two models, the purpose of the study is to analysis of environmental regulation role dedicated to environmental disclosure. Sample were taken from companies published in Jakarta Stock Exchange (secondary data) and their manager (primary data), selected 100 companies by using purposive random sampling, whereby resulted 53 companies. The research used two models to analysis the impact of regulatory factors to environmental disclosure.  First, a regression analysis and discriminant analysis was used to test the impact of regulatory factors on the environmental disclosure, through an environmental management proactive variable. Second, the discriminant analysis was used to test the impact of regulatory factors on the relation between environmental management proactive and environmental disclosure. This study revealed that regulatory factors and environmental management proactive are predictor variables of the environmental disclosure, where the government regulation (regulatory factors) role is meaningful.

Keyword: regulatory factors, environmental management proactive, environmental disclosure

Analisis Kinerja Rumah Sakit Daerah Berdasarkan Budaya Organisasi, Komitmen Organisasi dan Akuntabilitas Publik (Survey pada Rumah Sakit Daerah di Jawa Timur)

Prasetyono
Nurul Kompyurini

Universitas Trunojoyo

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research are to study and analyze the influence of organizational culture, organizational commitment, public accountability toward organizational performance simultaneously and partially. The method of this research is description and explanatory survey. The units analysis are regional hospital in east java. The data collecting was carried out by spreading questionnaires to regional hospital managers. The  technical method of simple random sampling. The tool of analyze is path analysis The result on this research and hypothesis testing show that: (1) there is correlation among organizational commitment and internal audit in moderate category; (2) simultaneously, organizational culture, organizational commitment and public accountability had significant influence to regional hospital performance; (3) partially, organizational culture and organizational commitment had positive influence and significant to regional hospital performance,  public accountability had positive influence but not significant to regional hospital performance

Key Words: Organizational Culture Organizational Commitment, Public Accountability and Organizational Performance

Analisa Kinerja Keuangan terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi, Pengangguran dan Kemiskinan: Pendekatan Analisis Jalur

(STUDI PADA 29 KABUPATEN DAN 9 KOTA DI PROPINSI JAWA TIMUR PERIODE 2001 – 2006)

Ardi Hamzah, SE, M.Si, Ak

Abstract

The Purpose of this research is to examine directly effect variables financial performance on economic growth, to examine directly effect economic growth on poverty and unemployment also to examine indirectly effect variables financial performance on poverty and unemployment. The samples of study are region expense and revenue budget in 2001 – 2006 at 38 municipal. The result of study with regression indicate that variables finacial performance namely independently1 ratio, independently2 ratio, and efficiency ratio directly have positive significantly effect on economic growth, while effectiveness ratio directly have not significantly effect on economic growth. At economic growth directly have positive significantly effect on unemployment and also directly have negative significantly effect on poverty. To examine indirectly among variables financial performance on unemployment and povery indicate independently1 ratio, independently2 ratio and efficiency ratio have significant effect on unemployment and poverty, while effectiveness have not significant effect on unemployment and poverty.   

Keyword: financial performance, economic growth, poverty, unemployment  

Penginvestigasian Audit Expectation Gap pada Sektor Publik

Rusliyawati
Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Tanjungpura

Abdul Halim
Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the existence of audit expectation gap on public sector empirically. Three variables being tested are reporting, accountability, and auditing concepts that consist of auditor independence, auditor competence, unqualified opinion and performance audit. This research uses samples from 209 respondents that consist of 30 auditors BPK, 62 parliament members, 83 local government employees and 34 citizens of West Kalimantan Province. The data collection utilizes survey method and the analysis method is One-Way ANOVA. This research suggest that there are difference perceived between auditors (BPK) and the user of local government financial statement statistically significant. This research shows the existence of audit expectation gap in public sector.

Keywords: Audit Expectation Gap, Reporting, Accountability, Auditing Concepts, Auditors BPK, The User of Local Government Financial Statements, West Kalimantan 

Studi Fenomenologis terhadap Pelaksanaan Pengendalian Akuntansi Sektor Publik pada Satuan Kerja Pengelola Keuangan Daerah Kota Pusako Jambi dengan Pemahaman Functionalism Structural Parsons

Yudi
Universitas Jambi

Eko Ganis Sukoharsono
Universitas Brawijaya

Didied P. Affandy
Universitas Brawijaya

Abstract
This research was aimed to ascertain profoundly about implementation for controlling public sector accounting applied on one of Work Unity for Local Financial Management (WULFM) Pusako city at Jambi Province and to analyze and interpret effectively controlling for public sector accounting at Pusako city. This condition is starting from power abuse of local government apparatus that causes the losing of local government asset and people asset. By using interpretative approach and the phenomenology method, then the qualitative approach for symptom and/or reality investigated by observation and description to know what really exist is. However, the frame of its analysis uses functionalism structural Parson Theory. The object of research is one of work unity on local financial management Pusako City at Jambi Province. The result research described the causal reality implementation for controlling accounting is not running effectively, because internal controlling environment as “fundamental” to perform controlling public sector is not “establishing” yet strongly. Functionalism structural Parsons Theory expresses that all environment factor of internal controlling can’t establish by it self, interdependence and related one and another to deal with every changing.

Keywords: Controlling Accounting, Internal Controlling Environment, Structural Functionalism, Phenomenology.

Perbedaan Persepsi Intensitas Moral Mahasiswa Akuntansi dalam Proses Pembuatan Keputusan Moral (Studi pada Mahasiswa Akuntansi S1, Maksi, Pendidikan Profesi Akuntansi (PPA) Universitas Diponegoro Semarang)

Andri Novius
Mahasiswa Maksi Universitas Diponegoro

Prof. Arifin Sabeni
Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Diponegoro

Abstract

This paper investigates critical issues on ethical behavior, specifically the role of an individual’s perception of situation-specific issues on decision making process in moral situation related to some accounting situation. A person who perceived moral problem does not always make moral-decision in practice because he/she tend to ignore moral issues when be faced with technical-characteristic situation. Data were collected using Questionnaire based on four scenarios contain moral issues in some accounting situation. By using MANOVA with repeated measurement, the result indicate that both MAKSI and PPA students perceived there is no ethical problem in scenarios, but Undergraduate Accounting students perceived that there is moral problem concerned the issues in four accounting scenarios. This investigation prove the difference of Moral Intensity as well as Moral Sensitivity, Moral Judgment, and Moral Intention were not always create a person’s moral-decision in some accounting moral problem situation.

Keywords: Moral Intensity, accounting issue, moral-decision process, Manova Repeated Measurement

Pengaruh Penerapan Metode Pembelajaran Kooperatif Berbasis Kasus yang Berpusat pada Mahasiswa terhadap Efektivitas Pembejalaran Akuntansi Keperilakuan

Siti Mutmainah, SE, M.Si., Akt

Abstract

Due to weakness found on traditional learning model, correction effort needed in learning process, learning materials, learning method, management of class, and also assessment system of process and result of learning. The alternatives recommended are case-based learning and cooperative learning method in student-centered learning method’s context. Various research indicate that besides able to improve learning achievement, these learning also able to increase non-cognitive ability, like self-esteem, communications and interpersonal, and learning to learn. These learning methods applied at Behavioral Accounting subject in Faculty of Economics, Diponegoro University. To know the effectiveness of learning process with these methods, the answer of questionaires distributed to students were tested with regression analysis, besides qualitative techniques. Results of applying these learning methods indicate better benefit, both for lecturer and students, compared to traditional learning method. These learning methods can optimize students’ intellectual, social, emotional and language potency.

Keywords:  cooperative learning, case-based learning, student-centered learning, effectiveness of learning process.

Studi atas Pelaksanaan Metode PBN dan Hubungannya dengan Soft Skill dan Prestasi Belajar Mahasiswa

Fitriany Amarullah
Dahlia Sari
Departemen Akuntansi Fakutas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to conduct survey on the student’s assessment about trigger problem, facilitator and learning climate in PBL implementation. This research investigates the relationship between student’s performance and skill enhancement with trigger problem, facilitator and learning climate. This research compares the student’s performance in PBL class and the lecturing class. This research also compares the soft skill enhancement when the students use PBL method and when they use lecturing method. The result of this research shows that trigger and learning climate have positive (and significant) relationship with soft skill enhancement, and only trigger that has positive relationship with student’s performance. There is no significant difference on student’s performance between PBL class and lecturing class. For skill enhancement, only communication skill and working in team skill that have significant difference between PBL class and lecturing class.

Keywords: PBL, lecturing, trigger, facilitator, learning climate

Pengaruh Pandangan Dosen Akuntansi tentang Kepemimpinan Dekan dan Kultur Universitas terhadap Performance Dosen Akuntansi

Firman Syarif
Universitas Sumatera Utara

Anggriyani
Universitas Islam Sumatera

Abstract

This research is an empirical research about the influence of accounting lecturers sight about dean leadership and university culture on Accounting lecturers performance in some private and goverment university in North Sumatera – Medan. Data are analyzed with quantitative and qualitative analysis. We use SPSS version 15 for analyzing data. Validity test is done with Person Correlation and Reliability test is done with cronbach alpha measurement > 0,5 and hypotheses are tested with multiple regression analysis. For validity test, r table value for 30 respondent with significance level 5% is 0,296. For reliability test, questionairs are assumed accurate is cronbach alpha coefficient > 0,5 (Nunnally, 1994). All cronbach alpha is > 0,5, it means that requirement test for reliability is fulfilled, hypothesis testing uses table value coefficients on t value (t sig or t significance) H1 = 0,020 or probalitiy is far below from 0,05 and H2 = 0,015, it means that H1 and H2 are accepted and there is the influence on accounting lecturers sights about dean leadership in North Sumatera, University culture on accounting lecturer performance in some private and goverment university in North Sumatera. Hypothesis testing (H3) uses ANOVA on F value (F sig or f significance) is 0,000 or probabilty is for down 0,05. It means that H3 is accepted and there is the influence of Accounting lecturer sight and university culture about dean leadership simultaneously on accounting lecturer performance in some private and Govermernt University in North Sumatera, shows that determination coefficient result (R2) is 0,542 (54,2%) and statiscally significant (P≤ 0,05). This result shows that only 54,2% variation in accounting lecturer performance variable in some private and government university in North Sumatera-Medan the rest is explained by other independent variable that are not observed in this research.

Key Words : accounting lecturers sight, culture, and dean leadership.

Perbedaan Persepsi Mahasiswa Akuntansi Mengenai Sosiologi Kritis, Kreativitas dan Mentalitas

Ardi Hamzah

ABSTRACT

This research examines the difference of perception of critical sociology, creativity, and mentality between accounting students of PTN “X” and PTS “Y”. The sample of this research are 172 respondents that consist from 71 accounting students of PTN “X” dan 101 accounting students of PTS “Y”. The data were collected by using questionnaires. The validity of the data was tested by implementing construct validity. From computation, items from critical sociology, creativity, and mentality was valid. The reliability of the data was tested by implementing the Cronbach alpha. From computational, data critical sociology, creativity, and mentality was valid. The test of hypothesis will used Mann-Whitney test. The result of the research indicate there is not significantly difference for perception of critical sociology between accounting students of PTN “X” and PTS “Y”, while for perception of creativity and mentality there is significantly difference between accounting students of PTN “X” and PTS “Y”. This indication that subject of creativity and mentality necessary teached in higher education in Indonesia.

Key words: critical sociology, creativity, mentality

Penilaian Keputusan Investasi Varian: Efek Outcomes dan Framing

JESICA HANDOKO
Unika Widya Mandala Surabaya

Abstract

Performance appraisal involves the judgmental evaluation of jobholder’s traits, behavior, or accomplishments as a basis of making important personnel decisions and development plans. Performance appraisal should be made by performance appraiser on the basis of valid and reliable evidence, including when he/she evaluates his/her subordinate (a decision maker) who made variance investigation decision. It predict: (1) Outcome bias will have an impact on the perceived benefit of the investigation, (2) Investigation expenditures matched with perceived benefit are framed as costs while those without perceived benefit are framed as losses, and (3) evaluators with a cost frame provide higher performance ratings than those with a loss frame. A 2 x 2 between-subjects laboratory experiment design, with one hundred and ninety one Cost Accounting students demonstrates that outcome effect affect performance appraisal significantly (p-value = 0,023). When managers did not investigate cost variance, they were evaluated more unfavorably when investigation revealed problems in the system. Further, the investigation outcome affect  the perceived benefit of the investigation significantly (p-value < 0,05), expenditures  with perceived benefit are framed as costs while those without perceived benefit are framed as losses. Thus, paying premium frame in this research conclude moderately significant framing effect on higher performance.

Keywords: Variance investigation, Outcomes, Framing

Pengaruh Skema Bonus Direksi terhadap Aktivitas Manajemen Laba (Studi Empiris pada BUMN Periode 2003-2006)

Neneng Suryatiningsih
Sylvia Veronica Siregar

Abstract

Bonus scheme for board of directors of state-owned enterprises use components related to earnings number as basis to compute bonus. Hence, this scheme could motivate management to engage in earnings management activity to maximize their bonus. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of director’s bonus scheme in state-owned enterprises on earnings management. Our samples consist of 326 firm-years state-owned enterprises during year 2003-2006. Our results show that overall there is positive and significant effect of bonus scheme on earnings management. This result indicates that directors engage in earnings management activity to increase their bonus.

Keywords: bonus, earnings management, state-owned enterprises

Sistem Kontrol dan Kinerja: Pendekatan Interaksi dan Sistem untuk Riset Kontijensi dalam Akuntansi Manajemen

ABSTRACT

Muhammad Ja'far S
Lisa Kartikasari
Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang


The research was done to investigate the influence of control systems on firms’ performance, which involved perceived environment uncertainty (PEU). Using interaction and system approach, which use to test of fit between contextual and organizational variables, tested the hypothesis. Therefore, this research has theoretical and methodological meanings. The data was collected from managers of Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR), where the Branch of Indonesian Central Bank at Semarang has supervised them. There are 97 samples was collected by using mail survey and was chosen by purposive random sampling. The variables include PEU, control systems and financial performances. According to early literature, the control systems were categorized into operational control systems, management control systems and strategic planning, while financial performance was measured by ROA. The result indicates that control systems affected to financial performance, which involved PEU and using system approach. Any way, based on this research, the system approach is better than interaction approach.

Key Word: Control Systems, Perceived Environment Uncertainty, Interaction Approach, System Approach, Fit, Performance.

Determinan Implementasi Sistem Akuntansi Manajemen Inovatif: Studi Empiris pada Perusahaan Manufaktur di Indonesia

Yudhi Herliansyah
Nurlis
Universitas Mercubuana Jakarta

Meifida Ilyas
Universitas Satya Negara Indonesia Jakarta
    Accounting innovations are often not successfully implemented or diffused throughout the organization. This study seeks to explain this phenomenon. One of the major impediments to the successful implementation of accounting innovation is that management accounting systems are generally used to serve the decision control needs of top management while at the same time purportedly supporting the decision management needs of lower level managers. To the extent that the accounting system is used for decision control, innovation creates the potential for wealth effects to occur. This prompts managers, whose wealth will be negatively affected, to resist accounting innovation. We present conditions where it is likely for negative wealth effects to occur. Under these conditions the system will fail to achieve its intended objectives. Our theoretical model examines how decentralization choices influence resistance to accounting innovation. We argue that delegation of decision rights can limit the potential for resistance in two ways—(a) by creating the environment which allows managers to ensure that their subunits are able to adapt to the new signals provided by accounting innovations and (b) by enabling subunit managers to become involved in the design of these systems. Our model also enables us to assess the consequences on organizational outcomes when subunit managers resist accounting innovations. Based on data collected from production managers, our results demonstrate the importance of decentralization choices on the effective implementation of accounting innovations.

Key words: Adaptability, Change, Decentralization, Innovation, Management

Analisis Fairness dan Incentive Contracting pada Kinerja Berbasis Anggaran: Pengujian Eksperimen atas Referent Cognition Theory


Yusnaini, SE., MSi.
Universitas IBA Palembang

Abstract

Based on referent cognition theory, this study examines the effects of fairness and incentive on individual performance in a nonparticipative budgeting setting. An experimental design 2x2 between subject was conducted. Participants are as many as 88 student of accounting program. Two way anova analysis is used to investigate hypothesis. The result show as predicted by referent cognition theory. Performance was lowest when an unfair budget target assigned using an unfair budgeting process. When the budget target assigned was fair, the fairness or unfairness of the budgeting process had no effect on performance. When an unfair budget target was determined using a fair budgeting process, performance was not significantly different from performance of the subjects assigned fair budget targets.

Keywords: fairness; referent cognitions; budgeting, incentive contracting

Pengujian Efek Pembingkaian sebagai Determinasi Eskalasi Komitmen dalam Keputusan Investasi: Dampak dari Pengalaman Kerja


Tri Ramaraya Koroy
STIE Nasional Banjarmasin

ABSTRACT

Prior studies have shown that the framing effect is one of determinant in explaining decisions to escalate commitment to failing projects. Such studies, however, have not considered whether experience moderates the framing effect on escalation of commitment. This study reports the results of an experiment in which the effect of decision frame of investment performance with negative feedback informatian on judgment to continue project of experienced subjects is compared to inexperienced subjects.  Forty six Indonesian experienced managers and forty seven accounting students participated in this experiment. Two conditions based on prospect theory (negative framing and positive framing) manipulated, and two conditions of business experience, crossed between subjects. The experiment reaffirms that decision frame does not have effect on judgment of experienced subject but those frame indeed have effect on judgment to continue project of inexperienced subjects. This result suggest that framing effect as drawn from prospect theory is one of explanatory power of escalation of commitment, but it can not generalized to real-world business settings.


Key words: escalation of commitment, framing effect, prospect theory, experience

Pengaruh Struktur Kepemilikan terhadap Keputusan Keuangan dan Nilai Perusahaan. Survey pada Perusahaan Manufaktur di PT Bursa Efek Indonesia

Tendi Haruman

ABSTRACT

Top manager through the role of financial manager as the agent hired by the principal made three major decisions, which are: investment decision, financing decision, and dividend policy. Those decisions are interconnected and will create a value. Agency theory argued that in practice there will be conflict of interest between manager and the principal which is called as agency conflict. Ownership structure plays an important role to minimize the problem result from agency conflict in a company through the increase of managerial ownership and institutional ownership. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of ownership structure to the financial decision and the value of the company, this research used for regression model. The models are: First Model to investigate the effect of ownership structure to the financing decisions. 2nd model, used to investigate the effect of ownership structure to investment decision. 3rd model used to investigate the effect of ownership structure to dividend policy and the 4th model used to investigate the effect of ownership structure to financial decision and company value. The population of this research is manufacturing companies listed in BEJ. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling. The results are 94 companies. Pooling data method is used to collect the data and two stage least squares (2 SLS) is the analysis method. Base on the hypothesis test it can be summarized that simultaneously all predictor have significant effect. Partially: 1) Managerial ownership, Institutional Ownership and Dividend Payout Ratio Effect that to Equity Ratio (DER). 2) Managerial ownership, Institutional Ownership Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), dividend Payout Ratio, profitability to Growth effect the total Assets Growth (Investment decision). 3) Managerial Ownership, DER, Company Risk Effected Dividend Payout Ratio. 4) Managerial Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Investment and DPR Effect the Market Value of Equity (MVE). Finally the ownership structure (Managerial Ownership and Institutional ownership) and DPR Effect the Share Price.


Keywords : Financing Decesion, Investment Decesion, Dividend Policy,   Managerial Ownership, Institutional ownership, Firm Value,  Agency conflict, Agency cost.


Pengaruh Konsentrasi Kepemilikan Institusional dan Leverage terhadap Manajemen Laba, Nilai Pemegang Saham serta Cost of Equity Capital

Tarjo
Universitas Trunojoyo Bangkalan Madura

Abstract

This study was aimed to analyze the effect of institutional ownerships concentration and leverage towards earnings management, shareholders value and cost of equity capital. This study was based on agency theory and economic consequences. This study was performed using field research. Data were collected from The Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD). The population in this study is 102 firms which are listed at the Jakarta Stock Exchange from 2004-2005 and derived using some criteria. This study use Partial Least Square technique. The result showed that earnings management was negatively affected by institutional ownerships concentration and positively affected by leverage. Shareholders value was negatively affected by leverage. Cost of equity capital was positively affected by institutional ownerships concentration, earnings management, and shareholders value. The findings might be of interest to investors and creditors to make investment and credit decision. The study contributed to the literature in that has shown that earnings management is driven by shareholders value increasing rather than motive opportunistic management. Institutional ownerships concentration was positively reaction by capital market, so that evidence of them weren’t expropriation on minority shareholder’s and capital market.


Key words : agency theory, concentration institutional ownerships, earnings management, leverage, shareholders value, cost of equity capital.

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