Pengaruh Risiko Litigasi dan Tipe Strategi terhadap Hubungan antara Konflik Kepentingan dan Konservatisma Akuntansi

DR. AHMAD JUANDA, AK, MM
Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang

ABSTRACT

This research studies existence and determinant of accounting conservatism, especially related to conflict of interest between investor and creditor considering manager incentive due litigation risk and firm strategy typess. The objectives of this research are: (1) to investigate the effect of conflict of interest on accounting conservatism; (2) to investigate the effect of litigation risk on the relation between conflict of interest and accounting conservatism; (3) to investigate the effect of strategy types on the relation between conflict of interest and accounting conservatism. Result of the research shows that there are variation accounting conservatism level inter-firm. The first testing hypothesis result shows that conflict of interest influence positively on accounting conservatism. The second testing hypothesis result shows litigation risk moderate the relation between conflict of interest and accounting conservatism, but the moderation role is weaken. This result is not support predicted hypothesis. The third testing hypothesis result shows firm strategy types moderate the relation between conflict of interest and accounting conservatism. The result shows when firm strategy is prospector, the positive relation conflict of interest and accounting conservatism is weaker. When firm strategy is defender, the positive relation conflict of interest and accounting conservatism is stronger. The result support predicted hypothesis. This research shows litigation risk and strategy types can be assumed as condition that motivate manager in responding conflict of interest between investor and creditor related to conservative financial report. By unsupported the second hypothesis, possible reason for this matter because of the weakness of law enforcement in Indonesia, that influence manager in anticipating litigation risk.

Key words: conservatism, conflict of interest, litigation risks, strategy types

Pengaruh Aktivitas dan Financial Literacy Komite Audit terhadap Jenis Manajemen Laba

DEBBY FITRIASARI SE. AK, M.S.M
Universitas Indonesia

ABSTRACT

Audit committee is one component of GCG which exists in the company. In running their task and function in connection with financial reporting, the members of audit committee is required to communicate actively with internal and external parties and to have financial literacy in order to be able to increase the quality of company’s financial statement. This research is performed to find the effect of the audit committee’s effectiveness, in which the effectiveness is from the perspective of input and process, to the type of company’s earning management, whether it is efficient or opportunistic. The audit committee’s effectiveness is measured by the audit committee index from GCG survey results which is developed by Arsjah (2005). In addition to finding the effect of the audit committee’s effectiveness, this research is also performed to find the effect of components of audit committee’s activity, its meeting with company’s internal (SPI) and external auditor, and its financial literacy to the type of company’s earning management. More effective, active and financial literate the audit committees are expected to be able to make the company’s earning management more efficient. This research finds that the audit committee’s effectiveness from the perspective of input and process is not able to make the company’s earning management more efficient. If we see from the component of audit committee’s activity, its meeting with SPI is not proved to make the company’s earning management more efficient. Whilst the audit committee’s meeting with external auditor and financial literacy have inconclusive results. This research is also using Board of Commissioners (“BOC”) index and external auditor index from survey by Arsjah (2005), besides BOC’s percentage and auditor’s size, to find the effect of BOC’s and external auditor’s quality to the type of company’s earning management. This research finds that BOC index and external auditor index tend to make the company’s earnings management more efficient than the BOC’s percentage and auditor’s size. It shows that the BOC’s percentage and auditor’s size are not appropriate to be used as a proxy of BOC and audit quality.

Keywords : audit committee’s effectiveness, audit committee’s activity, financial literacy, earning management.

Pengaruh Corporate Governane terhadap Manajemen Laba di Industri Perbankan Indonesia

MARIHOT NASUTION
Alumni Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sebelas Maret
DODDY SETIAWAN
Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sebelas Maret

ABSTRACT

The aims of this research at examining the influence of corporate governance mechanisms, such as, board of commisioner composition and size, and audit committee existence on the earnings management practice in public bank companies listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange. The samples of this research is all of public banks companies existed in Indonesia in the year of 2000-2004 which were listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange. The research data were collected from public bank’s financial statement for the period of 2000 until 2004, from Indonesian Banking Directory published by Bank Indonesia from 2001 until 2005, and also from each company’s websites. Purposive sampling method was used to determine research sample. From this method, we have collected 100 observations from 20 public banks companies/5 years. By using multiple regression analysis as the research method, the results shown that corporate governance mechanisms, namely, board of commisioner composition and size, and also audit committee existence influenced earnings management of public banks companies which have been detected by using specific accrual model from Beaver and Engel (1996). These results mean those mechanisms done by the company have succeeded to minimize the earnings mangement practice. Therefore, based on these results we can conclude that corporate governance mechanisms have worked effectively to increase company’s performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, board of commisioner, audit committee, earnings management


Investigasi Motivasi dan Strategi Manajemen Laba pada Perusahaan Publik di Indonesia

KOMARUDIN ACHMAD
IMAM SUBEKTI
SARI ATMINI
Universitas Brawijaya Malang

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the existence of earnings management motivations and strategies. Based on ordinary least square regression, this study indicates that debt covenant and political cost motivations affect earnings management. However, bonus plan motivation and accounting method choice strategy do not affect earnings management. Investigation on earnings management practices explains that bonus plan motivation affect income increasing, not income decreasing. This study finds that the managers of public firms in Indonesia do not use accounting method choices as earnings management strategy. Some of them choose to use a little of accruals accounting flexibility and prefer both GAAP violations and intercompany transactions strategies. This study identifies that the motivations of debt covenant, political cost and owners’ wealth as well as the strategy of accruals accounting flexibility are earnings management practices with global value. Otherwise, earnings management practices with local value consist of motivation caused by both debt restructuring and going concern constraint and strategy through GAAP violations and intercompany transactions.

Key Words: Earnings management, Motivation, Bonus plan, Debt covenant, Political cost, Owners’ wealth, Debt restructuring, Going concern, Strategy, Accounting method choice, Accruals accounting flexibility, GAAP violations, Intercompany transactions, Global value, Local value


Pendeteksian Earnings Management, Underpricing dan Pengukuran Kinerja Perusahaan yang Melakukan Kebijakan IPO di Indonesia

AMINUL AMIN
STIE Malangkucecwara, Malang

ABSTRACT

Earnings Management, underpricing and performance of company joining policy of IPO draw to be studied. Differ from research Husnan ( 1996) to research phenomenon of underpricing of moment IPO, Nasirwan ( 2002) testing performance of pasca IPO, and Candy ( 2002) testing performance operate for and the finance performance, this research extend examination to phenomenon of earnings management, underpricing and company performance ( finance, market) together. As much 31 company conducting IPO in Jakarta Stock Exchange in research of during period 1990 up to 2001, with unit analysis of during 6 year consisted of 3 year before IPO and 3 year after IPO, so that there is 186 unit analysis. Result of examination indicate that mean discretionary accrual is positive, what indication that company executing IPO of indication do policy of earnings management three year before IPO and three year after IPO by playing component accruals. But discretionary accrual before IPO and after IPO not differ, this matter indicate that company still continue policy of earnings management at least until three year after IPO. Furthermore examination to underpricing using initial return ( Rt), proving that company executing IPO experience of underpricing on first when share traded in market sekunder. Mean of Initial return on first of trading in capital market is positive, even happened positive return until the third month a period of trading, afterthat happened degradation of return by the end of year (December). Although there no difference which signifikan of performance of finance before and after IPO, result of examination prove that company executing IPO experience of degradation of performance of finance, whereas performance of market show there is difference of return [of] before IPO by return [is] first day [of] trading [in] Stock Exchange Market, and there is downhill tendency after IPO especially by the end of year. If connected third the above phenomenon, in general the researcher cannot prove relation between policy earnings management, phenomenon underpricing, and the company market performance and finance performance conducting IPO.

Keywords: Initial Public Offerings (IPO), Earnings Management, underpricing and performance of company


Etika Penggelapan Pajak Perspektif Agama: Sebuah Studi Interpretatif

Ika Alfi Nur Izza
Ardi Hamzah

Abstract

The aim of this research to know, understand and interpretive of tax embezzlement ethics, religion perspective namely Islamic and Chiristian religion. Hence, this research is developed based on interpretive paradigm. The approach and technique of phenomenology analysis used to explore comprehensive meaning of tax embezzlement ethics, religion perspective namely Islamic and Christian religion. The result of this research prove according to Islam that the tax embezzlement is not ethics from regulation facet what making by government, because regulation made by government about tax this time have come near the perfection. According to Christian that the tax embezzlement sometime have ethics because taxpayer know the mean of tax and its important but its reality still a lot of apparatus do the corruption so that society do not want to pay for tax. But Islam also say that the tax embezzlement is ethics in seeing from present condition, that is development a lot still not yet realization though taxpayer have paid its tax, so that taxpayer assume the tax payment is a theft. Christendom also say that the tax embezzlement is ethics in seen from Indonesia condition in this time that is to the number of tax apparatus do the corruption from result of tax money, so that make taxpayer do not want to pay for tax.
Key words: Islam, Christian, ethics, tax, embezzlement


Etika dan Perilaku Koruptif dalam Praktif Manajemen Laba: Studi Hermeneutika-Kritis

AKHMAD RIDUWAN
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia (STIESIA) Surabaya

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to obtain understanding about the opinion and attitude of informants–that are accounting educator, management accountant, public accountant, investment advisor, credit analyst and tax auditor – on earnings management practices performed by managers. This study is motivated by previous studies findings that disclosed a riility that earnings managament practices is a facticity in enterprises financial reporting under various motivations and interests. Based on qualitative approach and analysis, or particularly named as an interpretive or a hermeneutic approach, the result of this study gives an understanding that informants had the different opinion and attitude on earnings management practices. In the accountants’ and tax auditor’s perspective, earnings management practices can’t be viewed as an earnings manipulation along that practices are performed in the accounting standards frame. Accountants also to give the opinion that earnings management practices can’t be viewed as a corruptive behaviour, except that practices are not perform according to accounting standards. However, in the investment advisor’s and credit analyst’s perspectives, earnings management practices performed under any patterns and strategies are the reflection of a corruptive behaviour motivated by corrupted mind. They give the opinion that earnings management practices always perform sistematically under certain motivation and interest. Earnings management are unvaluable practices for enterprise’ stakeholders; therefore, that practices must be rejected. Implications of this study are the rising of the needs for: (a) simpliflying application of accrual accounting for riil business transactions and events where the fairness can be verified in the real world; and (b) reducing flexibility in accounting method choices.

Key-Words: Accrual accounting, earnings management, corruptive behaviour, corrupted mind.


Studi Fenomenologis: Menguak Partisipasi Masyarakat dalam Proses Penyusunan APBD

Sopanah
Universitas Widyagama Malang
Mahasiswa PDIA Universitas Brawijaya Malang

ABSTRACT

The main aim of this research is to open participation phenomenon on local government budgeting process at Pemerintah Kota Malang. Hence, this research is developed based on interpretive paradigm. The approach and technique of phenomenology analysis used to explore comprehensive meaning of participation phenomenon on local government budgeting process. The result of this research participation phenomenon on local government budgeting process as according to mechanism arranged in Law No 25 2004. Other result show, that participation phenomenon on local government budgeting process still be assumed Utopis because the low of socialization to public so that only certain public of which can access information and proposes program, and when mechanism of Musrenbangkot is desisted hence compilation step of APBD hereinafter more in dominating politics problem.

Key Words: Participation, local government budgeting process, phenomenology


Refleksi Kinerja Manajemen Perbankan Syariah dalam Perspektif Amanah: Sebuah Studi Fenomenologis

Niswatin
Universitas Negeri Gorontalo
Rosidi
Universitas Brawijaya
Gugus Irianto
Universitas Brawijaya

ABSTRACT

The objective of research seems to understand the performance of syariah banking management at Muamalat Bank of Gorontalo Branch through amanah perspective. Research evolves within smaller management context, especially in the syariah banking branch management. Therefore, Muamalat Bank of Gorontalo Branch becomes a research object. Withstanding this objective, research employs interpretive-qualitative method with phenomenological approach to explore the problem and reality. Data types involve primary data collected from words and attitudes, and secondary data emanated from archive-based documentation and financial statement. Data collection techniques include interview, activity observation, and documentary review. Result of research indicates the synthesis of the understanding of the performance of syariah banking management being as the empirical finding with four understandings, especially related to the establishment of profit, ukhuwah (kinship), trust and compliance to ethic of syariah. Considering this understanding, while analyzed through amanah perspective, hence syariah banking management bears on three types of amanah. First, it stands for the profit-oriented business organization to interest of shareholder and creditor. It has a responsibility to central management and capital provider. Second, it remains as the social organization. It does not reflect purely the social organization with merely public service as the core business, because it also gives organizational contribution to management’s social responsibility in the development and empowerment of employee, other community and wider society. Finally, it represents as spiritual organization seen through the managerial awareness to grow and develop the spirituality of employee, customer, wider society and syariah demand. It may be explained that these three types of amanah of managerial performance only concern with syariah-based spirituality.

Keywords: managerial performance, syariah banking, and amanah


Koreksi Konsep Nilai Tambah Syari'ah: Menimbang Pemikiran Konsep Dasar Teoritis Laporan Keuangan Akuntansi Syariah

Andik S. Dwi Saputro
Mahasiswa S1 Jurusan Akuntansi Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Brawijaya
Iwan Triyuwono
Universitas Brawijaya

Abstract

Until now, have not many Shari'ah accounting thinkers and researchers who perform critical review of the various Shari’ah accounting concepts. This research done in order to view critically one of Shari’ah accounting concept, that is Shari’ah value added concept. This research provides a comparison study as considerations for Shari’ah accounting researchers to develop the Shari’ah accounting concept remain in the Shari’ah corridor. This research applies a qualitative approach by the concept of criticism in Islam as a method and makes use of Islamic economics concept as an analytical instrument. Further, by using the three concepts that are in the scope of Islamic economic thought as an indicator, the researchers analyze and criticism the critics object, that is Shari’ah value added concept. The indicators are Islamic ethics in muamalah, the concept of income distribution, and the principle of simplicity. Results from this research indicate that there is some part of the concept of value added that has the potential counter-productive to the development of Shari’ah accounting. First, definition of value added has the potential to return capitalist values in Shari’ah accounting through ethics utilitarianism. Second, definition and the concept of value added shows that the distribution of welfare in the concept of value added is only for the limited stakeholders. Third, in some cases, the format of value added reports have not show simplicity principle in Islam.

Keywords: Shari'ah value added, distribution, akhlak, simplicity principle, and Islamic criticism method


Social Contruction of Financial Reporting Practice in An Indonesia Insurance Company: Javanese Culture Perspective

Anis Chariri
Fakultas Ekonomi
Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

ABSTRACT

This study is a case study conducted in an Indonesian insurance company. The aim of the study is to understand the dynamics of financial reporting in the company. Ontologically, this study is built on a belief that financial reporting practice is a socially constructed reality. As a socially constructed reality, such a practice involves an interaction among social actors, and between organisational actors and the institutional and cultural environment in which the company operates. The main research question of this study is how organisational culture influences the company on the construction of its financial reporting practice. This study reveals that the company is committed to quality financial reporting because such reporting can be used to gain legitimacy and to maintain social harmony. The company conducts itself in this way is because it reflects Javanese culture, a dominant culture in Indonesia. Furthermore, this study concludes that the way the actors in the company construct financial reporting practice is influenced by its organisational culture. The organisational culture of the company, which reflects Javanese culture, is able to shape the behaviour of its actors from the top level to lower levels to conduct ethical and transparent business practice. Thus, as Hines (1988) claims, this paper concludes that financial reporting practice is a socially constucted reality.

Key words: organisational culture, Javanese culture, financial reporting, social construction
INTRODUCTION
This study claims that ontologically, financial reporting is a socially constructed reality that can shape, and be shaped by powerful actors and institutional environments. As a socially constructed reality, organisational actors can construct financial reporting so as to gain legitimacy and show that their organisation operates in accordance with socially acceptable beliefs, values and norms. Hurst (1970) argues that one of the functions of accounting, including corporate financial reports, is to legitimate the existence of the corporation. The role of corporate financial reporting is to inform a society that an organisation’s actions are accountable, and that they conform to social values and norms.


Manajemen Laba pada Perusahaan yang Melanggar Perjanjian Utang

NURUL HERAWATI
Politeknik YDHI Yogyakarta
ZAKI BARIDWAN
Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta

ABSTRACT

This research aims to give empirical evidence concerning earnings management in firms violating debt covenant and to test whether earnings management in those firms are larger than that in control firms. Research population is manufacturing company listed at Bursa Efek Jakarta. The sample includes 13 firms violating debt covenant and 20 firms as control firms. The sampling method is purposive sampling. Method of statistics used is t-test. The statistic test of first hypothesis shows that mean of discretionary accruals at a year before violation is significantly larger than that at the year debt covenant violation. This result supports debt covenant hypothesis. But, mean difference at the year of violation and at a year after violation does not provide the support for the hypothesis. The statistic test of second hypothesis shows that mean of discretionary accruals of firms violating debt covenant at a year before and at the year violation of debt covenant is not significantly larger than that of control firms. Thus, we can conclude that there are other factors besides violation of debt covenant that motivate management to perform earnings management.

Keywords: Earnings Management, Debt Covenant Hypothesis, Debt Covenant Violation, Discretionary Accruals


Retorika dalam Pelaporan Corporate Social Responsibility: Analisis Semiotik atas Sustainability Reporting PT Aneka Tambang Tbk.

Anis Chariri
Firman Aji Nugroho
Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Diponegoro

ABSTRACT

This research is aimed to understand corporate social (CSR) responsibility reporting of a company by answering research questions: how and why the company designed such report to build corporate image. Ontologically, this study is build on a belief that CSR reporting is a communication medium used by a company to build image and to gain legitimacy. This research was carried out within intepretive paradigm using semiotic approach. By employing semiotic analysis, this research showed that corporate social responsibility reporting has been designed by the company as a rethorical story to build a positive image that the company is concerned with social and environmental issues. By doing so, the company actively seeks reporting strategies to gain legitimacy from its stakeholders.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, sustainability reporting, semiotic, rhetorics



Semiotika Laba Akuntansi: Studi Kritikal Pormodernis Derridean

AKHMAD RIDUWAN
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia (STIESIA) Surabaya
IWAN TRIYUWONO, GUGUS IRIANTO, UNTI LUDIGDO
Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Brawijaya Malang

ABSTRACT

The main aims of the research are (a) to understand the interpretation of accounting earnings by accountants and non-accountants; and (b) to perform a deconstructively semiotics-reading about the text related with their interpretations of accounting earnings. This research is performed based on criticalpostmodern approach, with accountants and non-accountants as an informant. The semiotics reading and analysis are performed in three levels, that are micro level structural-semiotics, macro level structuralsemiotics, and decostructive-semiotics. The analysis in the micro level structural semiotics gives the understanding that interpretation of accounting earnings (as a signifier) by accountants and non-accountants do not refer to the same referential reality (as a signified). The analysis in the macro level structural semiotics expresses realities that (a) accounting principles are not “generally accepted”; (b) accounting practices are hegemonical; (c) accounting practices are “ritually” performed based on the false consciousness; and (d) accounting earnings do not have information contents. Then, based on the Jacques Derrida’s philosophy, deconstructive semiotics analysis expresses some realities that are (a) accounting earnings are traces, either the trace as a history of text or as an experience and interest of interpreter; (b) nothing outside the text of accounting earnings because the meanings of accounting earnings are intertextual, accounting earnings are the result of simulation only, and the meanings of accounting earnings do not exceed the experience and interest of interpreter; (c) accounting earnings are the metaphysics of presence, in the means of “being” and “presence” through the process called “becoming”, representation of “the being of beings” realities, so that accounting earnings are illusion ended to reification; (d) accounting earnings are the product of logocentrism, that is ratio as a centre of truth, so that accounting idealism in earnings determination is more conspicuous than pragmatism. The implications of the analysis result above are (a) the presentation of income statements ought to be disclose earnings information according to the frame of pragmatic interpretation; (b) the reporting of earnings information should not be conspicuous the idealism only, because the end users of earnings information are those who live in pragmatic habitus. (c) accounting idealism ougth to limits the implementation of accrual-based accounting to real transactions or events, or reduce its implementation to ideal or conceptual transactions.

Key-words: Accounting Earnings, Structural-Semiotics, Deconstructive-Semiotics, Logocentrism, Idealism, Pragmatism, Jacques Derrida



Chitika

My Blog List

Popular Posts